Production systems is the field of research where methods from modeling, simulation, systems analysis, identification, estimation, optimization, and control are applied to and developed for complex tasks in production systems and the manufacturing industry. The objectives of this research are highest product quality, zero-defect production, efficient use of resources, maximum product throughput, environmental friendliness, cost saving, integrated quality assurance, more diverse product portfolios, increased individuality and flexibility of products, safety and robustness of processes, as well as enabling of new production technologies. In addition to improved process management and control, methods for fault detection, wear monitoring, and predictive maintenance are designed. The application of the developed methods in an industrial environment is a rigorous test of their suitability and efficiency. Moreover, it is a driver for new theoretical developments.